Provide Reference This approach offers researchers a great deal of flexibility, whereby theories can be developed qualitatively and tested quantitatively or vice versa. The prime implicants are: + + (iii) The nature of statistical analyses undertaken. Jain * SAMPLING METHOD is an important tool in the realm of social science researches. Information was sought from various sources including industrial and academic publications, institutions and university databases, the Internet, seminars, workshops and conference notes attended. 5 Major Objectives Of Tabulation: (1) To Simplify the Complex Data Cross-tabs or cross tabulation is a quantitative research method appropriate for analyzing the relationship between two or more variables. Quine–McCluskey method is a tabular method that has an advantage over Karnaugh maps when a large number of inputs are present (more than five variables). We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. The main advantages of a case study include richness of data and deeper insight into the phenomena under study (Hancock, 1998). Note that the only prime implicant here is Z = . Since the study used the detailed literature to derive the item statements and identified the various key issues, it can be argued that the study started as a descriptive study. K-maps are not suitable when the number of variables involved exceed four. According to Yin (1994), four tests are commonly used to establish the quality of any empirical social research such as construct validity, internal validity, external validity and reliability. Reference this. Study for free with our range of university lectures! Free resources to assist you with your university studies! Bear in mind that when two terms are combined, one of the combined terms has one digit more at logic 1 than the other combined term. This paper is concerned with an analysis of this tech-nique with a view to explore the possibility of its use in projects concern-ing law, judiciary and the vast hitherto untapped field of legal research. However, after addressing the research problems assisted by the quantitative results, the study moved further to explain in explorative manner how steel companies can develop and implement sustainability management framework with a monitoring and review mechanism using composite sustainability performance index while evaluating the needs and expectations of the stakeholders. 1110, 1011.............Index 3 One should examine various alternatives when choosing research strategy. sum of products form to a set of prime implicants from which as 11. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. The research work develops methodological foundations for the construction of sector-specific composite indicator. To make things easier, change the function into binary notation with index value and decimal value. VAT Registration No: 842417633. of these prime implicants for these minterms. This indicates that the number of 1's in a term is significant and is referred to as its index. The resulti… Therefore, the study can also be described as an exploratory study. Reminder letters were mailed to the individuals that had not participated. Assessment of level of engagement with the stakeholders, 13. Specific research outlined in Chapter 5 was carried out as a case study on stakeholder-organisational relationship at a typical steel plant in India. The review helped to identify gaps in knowledge and formed the basis for developing the framework to aid the implementation of sustainability issues at the strategic level. In addition, the method of selecting individuals to be interviewed led to selecting a lower proportion of female voters, and candidate B was favored by females. It is a systematic approach with well thought-out, scientific methods and procedures. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. Exploratory research aims at generating basic knowledge and demonstrates the character of a problem by collecting information through exploration. Disadvantages of direct tabulation of administrative data. many variables are eliminated as possible. The survey technique is the most widely used method in social science and also the most relevant to this study. The six-variable functions. Some managers discussed the various points on the telephone. A review of related research in the field. We can therefore use either 4. Bear in mind that any unticked terms in any list must be included in the final expression (none occured here except from the last list). The necessary condition for combining two terms is that the indices of the two terms must differ by one logic variable which must also be the same. Difficulties in selecting truly a representative sample 3. A more pragmatic approach is suggested by sampling theory. 3. Last Updated on Fri, 04 Sep 2020 | Agricultural Statistics. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Disadvantages of questionnaires however also stem from the same factors that provide the advantage. But the real difficulties lie in selection, estimation and administration of samples.Disadvantages of sampling may be discussed under the heads: 1. A sample is used to gather information about the variable. Limited response: the persons who cooperate or respond the questionnaire are very few in number. Bear in mind that the dash indicates a missing variable and must line up in order to get a third list. Table 3.1 collates the advantages and disadvantages of these three survey methods. Moreover, information and knowledge was also gained by attending relevant courses. However, it was heartening to find that one in three managers did show requisite enthusiasm in the study by spending an average executive time of one hour. Table 3.5 Key Informant Approach to the Measurement of Organizational Properties, If only one informant, then attempt to identify the most informative person, Most of the informants were the head of the CSR, environment and other related departments or the senior level managers, Recognize the role of person’s emotional involvement with the subject. One should examine various alternatives when choosing research strategy. A disadvantage of a line graph is that one particular data point cannot be effectively evaluated using this method. Online Survey Advantages. Identification of key environmental, social and economic indicators for aggregation, 17. In previous chapter, we discussed K-map method, which is a convenient method for minimizing Boolean functions up to 5 variables. 2. Review of historical context of sustainable development, how it is understood and defined by various groups and the sustainability trend in steel industry. It typically involves cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using questionnaires or interviews to collect large amount of data. There are many disadvantages of tabular form of data, out of many some of the major disadvantages of tabular representation of data are It does not give a visual presentation of data, it only gives textual representation ; Tabular data is only good for differences of points or if we tally two or more topics ; Tabular representation won’t provide much of definitions it only helps to tally Statistical and administrative purposes require different kinds of … The chart is used to remove redundant prime implicants. 6. Organization of data means classification, tabulation, graphical presentation and diagrammatic presentation of data. Informants were involved with strategic issues related to research constructs and therefore have a keen interest with the subject. To fulfil the purpose with this thesis, both exploratory and descriptive approaches have been chosen. Suggestions for further work are made. You can view samples of our professional work here. A single case holistic was chosen, since the considered Steel Plant was thought to represent a significant contribution to the knowledge and theory of sustainability management. Questionnaires were distributed to 120 managers of 48 steel companies’ world wide. functions. SAMPLING METHOD IN LEGAL RESEARCH R.B. Errors and Mistakes: Since graphical representations are complex, there is- each and every chance of errors and mistakes.This causes problems for a better understanding of general people. Descriptive research involves examining a phenomenon to define it more or to differentiate it from other phenomena (Dane, 1990; Martella et al., 1999). Descriptive research involves examining a phenomenon to define it more or to differentiate it from other phenomena (Dane, 1990; Martella et al., 1999). Table 3.3 Different Situations for Data Collection Strategies (Source : Yin, 1994). The main aim of using triangulation method is to improve the reliability and validity of the research outcomes. 1111...................Index 4. From the second list we can see that the expression is now reduced to: Z = + Akin to most qualitative methods, case study is time consuming. That may be better done with a bar graph. Let we have a Boolean expression F= (0,1,2,3,5,7,8,10,14,15) and we have to minimize that by Quine McCluskey tabulation method. the function, although decimal notation is also used for the Finally, the number of returned questionnaire approached the figure of 50. Qualitative research consists of detailed descriptions of events, people, interactions and observed behaviours (Patton, 1992) and general opinion. Yin (1994) explains three different types of purposes for research namely exploratory, descriptive and explanatory. Validity generally focuses on the question as to whether the measurement device indicates what it aims to measure. Documentation, archival records, interviews, direct observations, participant’s observations and physical artefacts. However, more pragmatic view needs to be taken about how large the sample size should be, considering limited time and resources available in the present study. There is a wealth of literature on the concept of sustainable development and sustainable construction but to a varying degree of quality. Advantages and disadvantages of each of these methods are discussed on a comparative basis. Assess the key sustainability issues for each stakeholder and their most important expectations to your company. Now take an example to understand the process. Appropriate selection of research methods leads to the success of any research (Steele, 2000). particularly useful when minimising functions having a large The combination of the two approaches is termed triangulation. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Questionnaires as data collection tool provide both the researcher and the responder with many advantages. The disadvantages of the K-map method are It is not suitable for computer reduction. Forecasting is looking into the future so that we can accordingly plan for it. Further, the archival analysis does not require control over the behavioural events, but on the other hand, it focuses on non-contemporary events. Table 3.5 summarizes the extent to which these guidelines are followed in this study to demonstrate that as far as possible the data was free from informant-specific measurement error. Minterm 1 is present in and D. Similarly for minterm 3. Table 3.2 Comparison Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research (Source:Yin,1994 ), To gain understanding of underlying reasons and motivations, To provide insight into the settings of a problem, generating ideas and/or hypothesis for later quantitative research, To uncover prevalent trends in thought and opinion. Following are some of the general rules which one should observe while constructing the tables. Develop the methodology for assessment of sustainability performance of steel industry and aggregation of indicators, AA: Archival Analysis S: Survey CS : Case Study. It saves a lot of time. Note that the ticks are just there to show that one term has been combined with another term. Forecasting is essentially a process of analyzing the past and present business movements and trends to obtain some idea or clues regarding future trends and business movements. However, forecasting is not a haywire process. Develop a simplified framework for designing, implementing, monitoring and reviewing the sustainability management system, 16. From the truth table, you can directly get a boolean expression via sum of products, but this is also a rather large expression. Explanatory research aims to explain why a phenomenon occurs. Note that the above solution can be derived algebracially. Among various advantages, it facilitates in-depth study; produces overwhelming detailed information with a smaller number of people; and provides a great understanding of the topic under study. The reason for exclusion of small steel companies was that the issues related to sustainable practices might not be much relevant to very small steel companies. Need for subject specific knowledge 4. changeability of sampling units 5. impossibility of sampling. The choice of research methodology and the reasons for its selection are also provided and mapped out against research objectives and associated tasks along with anticipated research output in Table 3.6. The Quine McCluskey tabulation method is a specific step-by-step procedure to achieve guaranteed, simplified standard form of expression for a function. There are several advantages as well as disadvantages involved in using a qualitative research method. Tabular Presentation of data is a method of presentation of data. The tabular method which is also known as the Quine-McCluskey method is No plagiarism, guaranteed! This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. Survey is one of the most widely used methods in social sciences to provide a representative sample of the area of study and serves as an efficient and effective means of looking at a far greater number of variables than is possible with experimental approaches (Galiers 1992). Empirical studies are lengthy. A case study may combine a variety of data collection methods and research strategies (Fellow and Liu, 2003). Since it was not possible to control behavioural events, the strategy experiment was not of interest. 3. For example, the survey that determined the frequency or number of employees of a firm owning different brands of mobile phones like Blackberry, Nokia, I phone, etc. From the above chart, BD is an essential prime implicant. Cross tabulations provide a way of analyzing and comparing the results for one or more variables with the results of another (or others). The method Yin (1994) explains three different types of purposes for research namely exploratory, descriptive and explanatory. Tabular Method Compute all prime implicants Find a minimum expression for Boolean functions No visualization of prime implicants Can be programmed and implemented in a computer. 9. In the case study four sources of evidence were used : documentation, archival records, interview and direct observations. This method allows direct entry of the precoded responses Other questions which are how question, and possible research strategies are experiment, survey, archival analysis, history, or a case study. Logical sources 2. Chances of bias 2. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! The selection of the most suitable research method depends largely on the intention of the research objectives and the type of data needed for the research. 24. The remaining research strategies were survey, archival analysis, history and case study, but while the intention was to investigate contemporary events, a case study together with a survey seems to be the most appropriate research strategies to use. Attempt to motivate informants to cooperate with the study seriously, All participants have been informed that the summary of the findings will be circulated, Informants were requested to provide inputs in designated time frame, Assess the impact of alternate framing of questions, Discussion organized at the initial stage to resolve the questionnaire format, Followed in the questionnaire development; most were selected questions with valid measurement properties. According to Yin (1994), there are four types of research designs for case studies; i.e., single-case (holistic) designs, single-case (embedded) designs, multiple-case (holistic) designs and multiple-case (embedded designs). The method reduces a function in standard sum of products form to a set of prime implicants from which as many variables are eliminated as possible. A review of the pros ande cons of questionnaires highlight questionnaires as an instrument that allows standardization, ease of use, and anonymity. 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